• Investigación Cientifica

  • Desde Cromosomas Estables a Genes Saltarines
  • ¿Sabía usted que?

    Did you know that some DNA “jumps” from cell to cell, and this small percentage may be linked to genetic disorders in humans such as hemophilia, leukemia and breast cancer? “Jumping genes” were the discovery of Barbara McClintock, a Nobel-prize winning biologist whose work challenged the long-held notion of a stable genome.

    Resumen

    This module profiles the groundbreaking research of biologist Barbara McClintock in the field of genetics. The module describes McClintock’s painstaking process of identifying specific loci for inherited traits. It shows how her diligence and creativity advanced science through decades of research on maize plants, which led to a Nobel Prize for her discovery of “jumping genes” or transposons.

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  • César Milstein
  • ¿Sabía usted que?

    ¿Sabía usted que células carcinogénicas pueden ser utilizadas para un buen propósito? En la década de 1970, inmunólogo César Milstein cambió la medicina al combinar dos células: una que era capaz de producir anticuerpos que pelean con enfermedades y la otra que permitía que el anticuerpo se reprodujera una y otra vez. Virtualmente todos los exámenes sanguíneos en los que dependemos hoy en día para detectar una enfermedad especifica o hasta un embarazo utiliza la técnica de Milstein.

    Resumen

    Desde pruebas de embarazo caseras a tratamientos de Ebola, el descubrimiento de anticuerpos monoclonales han avanzado la ciencia y la medicina, Este módulo traza el trabajo del inmunólogo César Milstein, quien ha creado exitosamente las células “hibridoma”, capaces de producir anticuerpos específicos en cantidades grandes. Este modulo describe la vida de Milstein como estudiante en Argentina durante el régimen de Juan Perón y también sus investigaciones posteriores mientras se hacia científico de clase mundial, ganando el Premio Nobel en el año 1984.

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  • Fabiola Léon-Velarde
  • ¿Sabía usted que?

    ¿Sabia usted que el mal de montaña crónico afecta a mas de 15 por ciento de las personas que viven en elevaciones altas? Cuando personas viven en elevaciones altas durante mucho tiempo su sangre se espesa y sus pulmones, cerebro, sangre y ojos pueden sufrir. El área de medicina de montaña ha sido bien importante en avanzar el conocimiento y en desarrollo de medicina para condiciones físicas que resultan por vivir en la montaña a largo plazo.

    Resumen

    El Aire tiene menos oxigeno en altitudes altas y la fisiología del cuerpo cambia dramáticamente como resultado. Este modulo perfila el trabajo de fisióloga Peruana Fabiola León-Velarde, quien ha avanzado significativamente el entendimiento mundial del mal de montaña. Este módulo detalla la investigación de León-Velarde y también sus acontecimientos mientras educa al lector acerca de los cambios en el cuerpo en altas altitudes. Varios efectos de salud en altas altitudes son explorados en detalle.

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  • Estudiando el Cambio de Clima con Kevin Arrigo
  • ¿Sabía usted que?

    Did you know that the Arctic sea ice is shrinking as a result of climate change? The ICESCAPE project, funded by NASA, investigates how climate change in the Arctic Ocean may impact the region. Studies such as this provide valuable information about the changing global climate and its effect on our planet and the life it supports.

    Resumen

    Biological oceanographer Kevin Arrigo investigates questions about changes in polar ecosystems due to a changing climate. This research profile explores Arrigo's expeditions in the Arctic Ocean and examines the different influences on Arrigo’s research projects and his career in general. Factors that guide research are discussed, from obtaining funding, to planning research projects, to conducting research in the field.

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  • Recipiente del Premio Nobel Mario Molina
  • ¿Sabía usted que?

    ¿Sabia usted que los químicos compuestos CFC que ahora son prohibidos se pensaban en un tiempo ser una alternativa no dañina para el ambiente para los refrigerantes en el mercado en ese entonces? Fue solo después de que los CFCs comenzaron a salir en miles de millones de productos para hogar que los químicos Mario Molina y F. Sherwood Rowland se dieron cuenta que se estaban comiendo la capa de ozono que protege a la Tierra, lo que lleva a un aumento en cáncer de piel y también a otros efectos nocivos para la salud.

    Resumen

    Este módulo traza la vida de la investigación científica de Mario Molina, el primer químico nacido en México en ganar el Premio Nobel. Trabajando con F. Sherwood Roland, la investigación innovadora que llevó al tratado internacional para la eliminación gradual de químicos hechos por humanos que son dañinos para la capa protectora de la Tierra. Como resultado, las sustancias que agotan la capa de ozono fueron reducidas en un 98 por ciento. Desde entonces Molina ha estado haciendo campaña para avanzar la investigación científica en países en vísperas de desarrollo, y el avance internacional en políticas que salvaran a la Tierra.

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  • Experimento Clásico: Meselson y Stahl
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    Did you know that many classic experiments in science are famous not because of their complexity but because of their simplicity? This is the case with Meselson and Stahl’s classic experiment in DNA replication. In one of the most famous experiments in molecular biology, Meselson and Stahl elegantly tested three scientific hypotheses with one simple design.

    • NGSS
    • HS-C6.1, HS-LS3.B1
    Resumen

    Testing predictions is a major part of scientific research, and a key component of many classic experiments. This module explores the research methods used by Meselson and Stahl in their ingenious 1958 experiment showing how DNA replicates. The module highlights the power of simplicity in what has been called "the most beautiful experiment in biology."

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  • Santiago Ramón y Cajal and Camillo Golgi
  • ¿Sabía usted que?

    Did you know that artistic ability has been key to scientific discovery? In the days before cameras could be attached to microscopes, any tiny structures observed by scientists had to be painstakingly drawn by hand. Even equipped with drawing talent, after two centuries of peering through microscopes scientists were still not able to make out the cells that formed nervous system tissue. It was only with improvements in microscope technology, advances in staining techniques, and careful drawings that the structure of nerve tissue could be understood.

    Resumen

    This module traces the beginnings of neuroscience, with a focus on two fathers of neuroscience who shared the 1906 Nobel Prize for their work. Along with the advent of better microscopes, Camillo Golgi’s and Santiago Ramón y Cajal’s vastly improved staining techniques and meticulous drawings shed light on our understanding of the structure of nervous tissue. The module explores Golgi’s reticular theory, which was later proved incorrect, and Ramón y Cajal’s discovery that the brain was made up of individual cells.

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  • Rastreando a Jaguares en Peligro de Extinción con Sergio Avila
  • ¿Sabía usted que?

    Did you know that until hunters spotted two jaguars in 1996, these big cats were thought to be extinct in the United States? Jaguars roamed freely in the southwestern US until they vanished from the area due to habitat destruction, hunting, and other human activities. However, thanks to conservation efforts by Sergio Avila and others, jaguars have returned to the region and are now studied and protected.

    Resumen

    This module offers an in-depth profile of wildlife biologist Sergio Avila and his work to conserve endangered jaguars and other wildlife in the US-Mexico border region. Topics in environmental science and conservation biology are introduced. The module describes how research data are collected and analyzed and highlights the importance of cooperation among individuals and agencies to protect endangered plant and animal species.

    Conceptos Clave
    • Los científicos son diversos en muchas maneras y sus experiencias personales - incluyendo culturas, orígenes y oportunidades - influyen los caminos que ellos siguen.
    • Los científicos pueda que trabajen para recibir financiamiento de muchos tipos de organización, incluyendo organizaciones sin fines de lucro, fundaciones privadas y fuentes gubernamentales.
    • Organismos y ecosistemas no siguen fronteras políticas establecidas por el ser humano y los científicos puede avanzar en su investigación trabajando cruzando esas fronteras, desarrollando habilidades de lenguaje y construyendo relaciones para entender necesidades locales.
    • Los datos recolectados por medio de investigación científica deben ser analizados e interpretados para ser utilizados como evidencia. La representación visual de datos es valiosa tanto para el análisis de datos como su interpretación.

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  • Perfiles en la Ciencia

  • Bernardo Houssay
  • ¿Sabía usted que?

    Did you know that President John F. Kennedy had been diagnosed with a condition called adrenal insufficiency, in which the adrenal glands do not produce enough adrenal hormones? The tests that led to JFK's diagnosis and treatment with injections of cortisol were related to the research of Dr. Bernardo Houssay, a pioneering endocrinologist.

    Resumen

    Dr. Bernardo Houssay was a pioneering researcher of the endocrine system, the system of glands that secrete hormones in the human body. Especially important was his work on a gland at the base of the brain called the pituitary and how multiple hormones enable the pituitary and other glands to affect one another in what are called "hormone feedback loops." That understanding resulted in Dr. Houssay being awarded the Nobel Prize.

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  • Carlos Finlay
  • ¿Sabía usted que?

    Did you know that the first time the construction of the Panama Canal was attempted, 22,000 workers died from disease and the project was abandoned? If a canal was to be built, somebody had to figure out what caused yellow fever. It wasn’t until physician Carlos Finlay made the connection between mosquitoes and yellow fever that the disease could be controlled, finally allowing the Panama Canal to be built.

    Resumen

    The successful construction of the Panama Canal relied as much on a medical breakthrough as it did on technological advances and hard labor. This module profiles Cuban-American doctor Carlos Finlay, who identified mosquitoes as the culprits in the spread of malaria and yellow fever. Tracing how our understanding of infectious disease evolved, the module highlights Finlay’s perseverance in spite of initial rejection by the medical community. It shows how Finlay's insights helped to stop the spread of these diseases and ultimately made the Panama Canal possible.

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  • Craig Lee
  • ¿Sabía usted que?

    Did you know that the four warmest years on record occurred between 2010 and 2015? With warming temperatures, artifacts have been melting out of icy areas on ancestral Native American lands at alarming rates. Once exposed, these objects that have been kept in cold storage thousands of years are at risk of decay and theft, sending Dr. Craig Lee and other ice patch archaeologists on a mission to recover these cultural resources before they are lost forever.

    Resumen

    With a warming climate around the world, astounding archaeological finds have been melting out of ice patches. This module profiles the work of Craig Lee, a leader in the emerging field of ice patch archaeology in North America. The module emphasizes the importance of collaboration between archaeologists, tribal groups, and US government entities in an effort to appropriately collect, protect, and interpret culturally sensitive artifacts found on ancestral Native American lands. Topics include research methods and the multidisciplinary nature of the work.

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  • David Ho
  • ¿Sabía usted que?

    Did you know that AIDS has killed 35 million people since 1981? An HIV diagnosis used to be a certain death sentence, but with medical breakthroughs pioneered by Taiwanese American doctor David Ho, HIV can now be managed indefinitely without becoming full-blown AIDS. Case in point: Basketball great Magic Johnson was found to be HIV-positive in 1991, just as Ho’s research team was designing a combination drug therapy that would target the biology of the HIV virus. Owing to the effectiveness of the “AIDS cocktail,” Johnson remains disease-free 15 years later.

    Resumen

    This module profiles renowned AIDS researcher David Ho, who is credited with inventing the “AIDS cocktail” that has saved millions of lives. The module traces Ho’s journey from entering Los Angeles public schools at age 12 as a Taiwanese immigrant with no English to being named Time Magazine’s “Man of the Year” and being awarded the Presidential Citizens Medal for combating the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Topics include how the HIV virus replicates and mutates and how effective drugs target the biology of HIV. Also described is Ho’s work toward equality in HIV care around the world and among underserved populations in the US.

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  • La Ciencia en el Espacio con Ellen Ochoa
  • ¿Sabía usted que?

    Did you know that Ellen Ochoa was the first Hispanic woman in history to travel to space? After being rejected the first time she applied to the space program, she tried again two years later and was selected for astronaut training. Over a nine-year period, Ochoa took four trips to outer space, logging 978 hours in space, performing important research, and even playing her flute in space!

    Resumen

    Although she was rejected by the space program initially, Ellen Ochoa went on to become the first Hispanic woman to travel in space and was ultimately named Director of the Johnson Space Center. This module takes an in-depth look at the life and career of Ellen Ochoa, from considering a flute-playing career to getting a PhD in electrical engineering and becoming an astronaut. The module describes scientific research projects in space and how they contribute to our understanding of Earth.

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  • France Anne-Dominic Córdova
  • ¿Sabía usted que?

    ¿Sabía usted que la directora actual de la Fundación Nacional de la Ciencia estudió Inglés en la Universidad? Después de su regreso a sus estudios para obtener un doctorado en al física, La carrera y la educación de France Córdova en la ciencia incluyó hacerse la primer mujer, la primera Latina y la persona mas joven en ser la científica jefe de la NASA, también es responsable por un importante descubrimiento en la astronomía de rayos-X en sistemas de doble estrella y en el desarrollo del telescopio rayos-X mas poderoso que ha sido enviado al espacio.

    Resumen

    Este módulo perfila la carrera de la astrofísica France Córdova, directora de la Fundación Nacional de la Ciencia. Este módulo relata los pasos de Córdova desde sus días en una escuela secundaria que no ofrecía clases de física a mujeres, hasta su carrera como escritora y ultimadamente al primer puesto en la administración de ciencias de EEUU. Entre sus muchos acontecimientos, esta modelo a seguir construyó el telescopio de rayos X mas poderoso enviado al espacio, publicó mas de 150 artículos científicos, ayudó a empezar una escuela médica, y ha sido una líder en varias universidades prestigiosas.

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  • Franklin Chang Díaz
  • ¿Sabía usted que?

    ¿Sabia usted que solo dos personas han viajado al espacio siete veces? Una de esas personas que tiene el record es Franklin Chang Díaz, quien también fue el primero astronauta Latino Americano. Desde el lanzamiento de un cohete hecho en casa en su juventud con un ratón como pasajero – con todo y un casco de seguridad especialmente hecho – El estudio de la física de plasma de Chang Díaz eventualmente lo llevo a una carrera como astronauta de verdad y director del Laboratorio Avanzado de la Propulsión Espacial de la NASA.

    Resumen

    Franklin Chang Díaz, el primer Latinoamericano en viajar al espacio, empata el record de la mayor cantidad de vuelos espaciales. Este módulo detalla la vida y carrera de Chang Díaz desde su niñez en Costa Rica en donde construía sus mini cohetes, a su emigración y estudios de la física de plasma en EEUU, a través de su carrera como astronauta y mas allá. Este modulo describe el trabajo de Chang Díaz hacia el motor de cohete basado en plasma que podía cambiar radicalmente a los viajes espaciales, sus cruzadas continuas de parte del ambiente y su inducción al salón de la fama de Astronautas.

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  • Louis Tompkins Wright
  • ¿Sabía usted que?

    Did you know that when Louis Wright was hired as a physician at Harlem Hospital in 1920, four other doctors quit in protest? That’s because Wright was the first black doctor to join the staff, even though the hospital treated mainly African Americans. It was under these circumstances that Wright forged his medical career. Among his professional accomplishments, Wright pioneered techniques in abdominal surgery, invented hardware to treat broken bones, researched the effectiveness of diphtheria tests on dark-skinned people, and studied antibiotics and anti-cancer drugs.

    Resumen

    In the first two decades of the 20th century, job opportunities for African American physicians were pretty much limited to black hospitals and segregated private practice. This module profiles Louis Wright, who in 1920 was the first African American physician to join the staff of Harlem Hospital and who ultimately became Chief of Surgery. The module traces Wright's life and career, from being the only black student at Harvard Medical School to pioneering surgical techniques on the battlefields of World War I. Readers will see how Wright broke racial barriers in many different areas of medical treatment and research.

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  • Luis E. Miramontes
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    Did you know that one of the all-time top inventions of the last 2,000 years is considered to be the birth control pill? But before oral contraceptives were possible, it would be necessary to create a synthetic form of a female hormone. The compound that Mexican chemist Luis Miramontes created in a lab in 1951 was eight times more powerful than natural progesterone, leading to the first form of birth control that could be taken in pill form.

    Resumen

    His name may not be familiar, but Mexican chemist Luis Miramontes was instrumental in a discovery that changed the course of human history: the birth control pill. This module traces the life and achievements of Miramontes, not only in the area of hormone synthesis, but in other areas of chemistry as well. Miramontes' advances in pharmaceuticals and petrochemistry are described, including his success in devising a chemical process to remove pollutants from engine exhaust.

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  • Luis Walter Alvarez
  • ¿Sabía usted que?

    Did you know that the scientist who is famous for his theory of how dinosaurs became extinct was not even a paleontologist? Rather, Luis Alvarez was a Nobel Prize-winning physicist who explored dinosaur extinction only because his son was interested in it. Among his accomplishments, Alvarez discovered several subatomic particles, invented a radar system for safer aircraft landing, applied cosmic ray physics to the study of Egyptian pyramids, and developed a way to detonate atomic bombs during World War II.

    Resumen

    Luis Alvarez is less famous for his Nobel prize-winning research into subatomic particles than for his theory on how dinosaurs became extinct. Yet, before he started looking into dinosaurs, Alvarez was credited with a lifetime of major advances in atomic physics. This module traces Alvarez’s application of physics to aircraft safety, Egyptian pyramids, K-electron capture, nuclear bombs, and the hydrogen bubble chamber which led to the discovery of many new subatomic particles.

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  • Percy Lavon Julian
  • ¿Sabía usted que?

    Did you know that when cortisone was discovered as a treatment for arthritis, it cost several times the price of gold? Only when scientists figured out how to synthesize cortisone in a laboratory was the cost reduced to pennies per treatment. One scientist credited with making arthritis relief affordable was Percy Lavon Julian, a grandson of former slaves who became a world-class organic chemist in spite of ongoing racial discrimination. His advances in chemistry have been used in treatments for cancer, Alzheimer’s disease, effects of chemical weapons, problem pregnancies, and in organ transplant drugs. Among his most impressive accomplishments, Julian made glaucoma treatment widely available by synthesizing a chemical compound to reduce pressure in the eye.

    Resumen

    The module traces the life and career of organic chemist Percy Julian, who developed a way to synthesize cortisone in large quantities, earning him a place in the National Inventors Hall of Fame. The module relates Julian’s accomplishments and the numerous challenges that he overcame through unwavering perseverance in the face of racial barriers. From his upbringing in the Deep South where public schools stopped at the eighth grade for African American children, Julian went on to earn a PhD, was awarded over 130 patents, revolutionized glaucoma treatment, and became the second African American inducted into the National Academy of Sciences.

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  • Ruth Benerito
  • ¿Sabía usted que?

    ¿Sabia usted que la aplicación de química básica salvo la industria de algodón de EEUU? En ese entonces, la industria estaba en serios problemas debido a que los consumidores pensaban que el algodón necesitaba bastante plancha. Los científicos trabajaron para encontrar maneras para ayudar a competir con telas de cuidado fácil que habían inundado el mercado textilero. Un avance importante llegó cuando la química Ruth Benerito y su equipo descubrieron el proceso para el tratamiento de algodón que evito las arrugas y lo hizo popular de nuevo con consumidores.

    Resumen

    Algodón resistente a las arrugas es uno de los desarrollos mas significantes del siglo XX. En medio de un clima económico y social que proveía pocas oportunidades para mujeres en la ciencia, la química Ruth Benerito desarrolló un método para hacer el algodón que sea a prueba de arrugas, el cual estaba siendo sacado de los mercados por fibras sintéticas. Este perfil describe la vida de esta química quien es comúnmente acreditada por salvar la industria de algodón en EEUU. Explica el proceso de cruce que hizo que el algodón pueda usarse solo con lavado.

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  • Guías de Lectura de Ciencia

  • Cambio de Huesos en Escaladores de Roca
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    Did you know that reading a scientific article is a skill in itself? Having a list questions to guide your reading can be a great help in understanding scientific articles. Questions to accompany the article “Factors influencing osteological changes in the hands and fingers of rock climbers” will highlight critical aspects of the article as you gain an understanding of how scientists undertake research.

    Resumen

    This reading guide provides access to a published, peer-reviewed scientific research article from the Journal of Anatomy. Questions to accompany the article help readers become familiar with the structure of a scientific journal article and ensure a critical approach to reading. Using the questions as a guide, readers gain a deeper understanding of how scientists undertake research. Links to relevant background modules are included.

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  • El Caso del Carpintero Real
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    Did you know that scientific journal articles follow a particular structure? Whether or not the basic parts are labeled with section headings, scientific articles include an Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, and Discussion. This reading guide will help you identify the parts of the article and focus on the authors’ main points as you learn about the “The Case of the Ivory-billed Woodpecker.”

    Resumen

    This reading guide provides access to a published, peer-reviewed scientific research article from the journal Science. Lists of questions and instructions that focus on the article’s format and content help readers see how research papers are organized and how scientists support their hypotheses with evidence.

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